of physical and mental health adopted by the General Assembly and the Commission on
Human Rights,
Recalling also the declarations and programmes of action adopted by the major
United Nations conferences and summits and their follow-up meetings,
Recalling further the Declaration on the Right to Development, which, inter alia,
establishes that States should take, at the national level, all measures necessary for the
realization of the right to development and should ensure, inter alia, equality of opportunity
for all in their access to basic resources, such as health services,
Taking note with interest of general comments and general recommendations from
treaty bodies that are relevant to the right of everyone to the attainment of the highest
attainable standard of physical and mental health,
Concerned that, for millions of people throughout the world, the full realization of
the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and
mental health, including through access to medicines that are safe, effective, affordable and
of good quality, in particular essential medicines, vaccines and other medical products, and
to health-care facilities and services, still remains a distant goal and that, in many cases,
especially for those living in poverty, this goal remains remote,
Concerned also that the increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases
constitutes a heavy burden on society, with serious social and economic consequences, and
aware that there is a need to respond to cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and
chronic respiratory diseases, which represent a leading threat to human health and
Recalling that access to medicine is one of the fundamental elements in achieving
progressively the full realization of the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest
attainable standard of physical and mental health, and that it is the responsibility of States
to ensure access for all, without discrimination, to medicines, in particular essential
medicines, that are affordable, safe, effective and of good quality,
Recalling also the creation, under the aegis of International Action against Hunger
and Poverty, of the International Drug Purchase Facility, UNITAID, which facilitates
access to drugs for the world’s poorest people as part of the fight against the major
pandemic diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis,
Recalling further Commission on Narcotic Drugs resolution 53/4 of 12 March 2010
entitled “Promoting adequate availability of internationally controlled licit drugs for
medical and scientific purposes while preventing their diversion and abuse”,
Recalling World Health Assembly resolution WHA63.1 of 19 May 2010 entitled
“Pandemic influenza preparedness: sharing of influenza viruses and access to vaccines and
other benefits”, which recognizes the need to implement a fair and transparent, equitable,
efficient and effective system for the sharing of the H5N1 and other influenza viruses with
human pandemic potential and access to vaccines and other benefits on an equal footing,
Concerned about the lack of health workers and their imbalanced distribution within
countries and throughout the world, in particular the shortage in sub-Saharan Africa, which
undermines the health systems of developing countries,
Recalling World Health Assembly resolution WHA58.33 of 25 May 2005 entitled
“Sustainable health financing, universal coverage and social health insurance”, which, inter
alia, urges States to ensure that individuals do not face catastrophic health-care expenditure
and impoverishment as a result of seeking care,


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